Permanent mold casting is an ideal option for creating custom components due to the ability to achieve the exact specifications of a complex shape or design. Permanent mold casting uses metal cores to form the interior passages within a casting, as well as shape the exterior portions of more complex shapes and designs. Forming cavities in a permanent mold casting is best done with permanent steel cores. When the design is such that permanent cores cannot be removed, destructive cores are used. This variation is called the semi-permanent mold method. Sectional steel cores are sometimes used.
The basic difference between permanent mold and die-casting is that permanent mold is a gravity feed process whereas die-casting uses pressurized injection. Gravity feed yields a denser casting. Metal molds (or dies) usually are made of high-alloy iron or steel and may have a production life of 120,000 castings or more.
Permanent mold and sand casting have similar processes by pouring a liquid metal solution in the mold to produce the permanent cast. While sand casting has been used readily for centuries, permanent mold castings usually have better mechanical properties than sand castings because solidification is quicker, and the fill is more consistent and accurate.
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